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  Scopus ID: 21100926589

Heat Transfer Augmentation in Photovoltaic Panels Using Nanofluid Cooling and Phase Change Material

Pon. Maheskumar, Jagadeesha Seethappa, Suresh Kumar Ramasamy, Jayanthi Narayanaswamy, Mayakannan Selvaraju and Karthikeyan Palaniyappan


The efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels degrades when the ambient temperature rises solar radiation absorption. The objective of this experimental research project is to design, construct, and study parametrically a home-based hybrid PV + thermal (PVT) system for active and practical applications of solar panels. As an active cooling mechanism, the PVT system uses water and water based nanofluids. In addition to investigating the impact of active cooling alone, this article also examines the effect of incorporating phase change material (PCM) and discusses its findings in length. Stable water-based zinc oxide (ZnO) and iron oxide (Fe2 O3 ) nanofluids are created in-house using a two-step process with 0.1 and 0.2 vol.% nanoparticle concentrations. The effect of the nanofluids on heat transmission from the PV panel is investigated by measuring and analyzing their thermal conductivity experimentally. The heat transferring rate of nanofluids increases as the number of nanoparticles per unit volume of water increases. At 0.2 vol.%, ZnO-water nanofluid shows the greatest improvement, approximately 30%. The solar simulator is used in an indoor experimental setting to replicate the PVT system under varying levels of solar irradiation (500 – 1100 W/m2 ). Combining active and passive cooling at 1100 W/m2 results in a maximum temperature decrease of around 25% and a gain in electrical efficiency of about 10.3%. When comparing ZnO-water nanofluids with water cooling at 500 W/m2 , it was discovered that using 0.2 vol.% ZnO-water increased electrical efficiency by 13%. The usage of nanofluids, in comparison to water, significantly increased the system’s thermal efficacy; the ZnO-basic water nanofluids at a concentration of 0.2 vol.% obtained the highest improvement, approximately 10%. From an operational perspective, these findings are crucial for the development of the PVT system.

Published on: November 01, 2023
doi: 10.17756/nwj.2023-s3-134
Citation: Maheskumar P, Seethappa J, Ramasamy SK, Narayanaswamy J, Selvaraju M, et al. 2023. Heat Transfer Augmentation in Photovoltaic Panels Using Nanofluid Cooling and Phase Change Material. NanoWorld J 9(S3): S759-S765.

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