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  Scopus ID: 21100926589

Investigating the Effects of Nanoparticle Based Borax Decahydrate as a Fuel Additive in Blending Spirulina Biodiesel with Diesel Fuel for Emission Control in a 4-stroke Diesel Engine

Safdar Shahee, Ajay Partap Singh, Puneet Singh Gautam and Logesh Kamaraj

Abstract

In recent years, the efforts to enhance engine efficiency have intensified due to the increased fuel consumption resulting from a growing number of cars on the roads. The rise in emissions has led to stringent regulations for diesel engines, although they are still commonly used, especially in freight transportation. Extensive research has been conducted by manufacturers and academics to address the emission issues associated with diesel engines. One approach to reduce emissions involves blending nanomaterials with diesel fuel; however, there has been limited exploration of blending biodiesel with diesel fuel. This study sought to examine the effects of incorporating borax decahydrate as a fuel additive into a 4-stroke diesel engine, specifically by blending Spirulina biodiesel with diesel fuel. To achieve this, borax decahydrate was meticulously dissolved in the biodiesel and varying amounts of biodiesel (1g, 3g, 5g, 7g, and 10%) were added to diesel. Five different fuel blends were examined: 90% diesel + 10% Spirulina biodiesel (S10), 90% Diesel + 10% Spirulina biodiesel + 1 g borax decahydrate (SB10B1), 90% diesel + 10% Spirulina biodiesel + 3 g borax decahydrate (SB10B3), 90% diesel + 10% Spirulina biodiesel + 5% g borax decahydrate (SB10B5), and 90% diesel + 10% Spirulina biodiesel + 7% g borax decahydrate (SB10B7). Among the fuel blends tested, SB10B3 exhibited improved brake thermal efficiency compared to diesel. This was attributed to proper combustion and early fuel injection. Additionally, SB10B3 demonstrated lower BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption) than diesel across all load conditions, making it the optimal blend based on fuel efficiency. The metallic nanoparticle-enhanced samples displayed reduced levels of CO (Carbon monoxide) and CO2 (Carbon dioxide) compared to diesel fuel under all loading conditions, owing to their higher oxygen content (8% to 9% more than diesel) facilitating better combustion. Notably, SB10B3 exhibited the lowest CO emissions among all the fuel blends. The nanoparticle-enhanced samples displayed reduced levels of CO and CO2 compared to diesel fuel under all loading conditions, owing to their higher oxygen content (8% to 9% more than diesel) facilitating better combustion. Notably, SB10B3 exhibited the lowest carbon monoxide emissions among all the fuel blends.

Published on: September 29, 2023
doi: 10.17756/nwj.2023-s3-010
Citation: Shahee S, Singh AP, Gautam PS, Kamaraj L. 2023. Investigating the Effects of Nanoparticle Based Borax Decahydrate as a Fuel Additive in Blending Spirulina Biodiesel with Diesel Fuel for Emission Control in a 4-stroke Diesel Engine. NanoWorld J 9(S3): S52-S59.

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