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  Scopus ID: 21100926589

Effect of Ammonium Sulfate on the Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite from Electric Arc Furnace Slag

Hind Agourrame, Hassan Ez-zaki, Nacer Khachani and Abdeljebbar Diouri


The steelmaking process results in the by-product formation of electric arc furnace slag (EAFS). Slag is recovered at two different stages of the steelmaking process, the first recovery is black and the second is white mainly consisting of SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. Blast furnace slag, as a by-product from manufacturing, served as a cost-effective raw material for preparation of apatite composite. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been commonly applied in medical and pharmaceutical field due to its excellent biocompatibility. Besides, it’s also widely applied in adsorption process owing to the adsorption feature. The present research focuses black slag from SONASID-Jorf steel in Morocco for preparation of HAP-calcium silicate hydrate. These phases were successfully synthesized by used ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). Using a wet precipitation method with molar ratio of Ca/P = 1.67 by adding H3PO4 and NaOH. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis techniques were performed on the samples to characterize the mineralogical and microstructural properties. The characterization of the developed phases indicates the formation of mixtures of dicalcium silicate with phases of gypsum (CaSO4.1/2H2O) and killalaite (Ca6Si4O14.2H2O) in the black slag activated with activator ammonium sulfate. Moreover, indicates the formation of HAP (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) phase synthesized by wet precipitation method. The micrographs obtained by SEM show the morphology of fine porous particles in the form of spherical agglomerates attributed to HAP.

Published on: September 21, 2023
doi: 10.17756/nwj.2023-s2-001
Citation: : Agourrame H, Ez-zaki H, Khachani N, Diouri A. 2023. Effect of Ammonium Sulfate on the Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite from Electric Arc Furnace Slag. NanoWorld J 9(S2): S1-S5.

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